ID296: Recuperation of the N from the liquid fraction after manure separation.
  • STEP 1 volatilization of the ammoniac by increasing pH
  • STEP 2 Scrubbing of the NH3-containing air either with nitric acid or sulfuric acid to produce an ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate liquid fertilizer
ID296: How do you reduce the energy required for the biological treatment when recovering the N from the liquid fraction? What energy do you need for the recovery?

N-recovery process: Energy for heating the liquid fraction up till 40°C - 70°C; energy for pumping.

Fertilizers complying with RENURE criteria will be put on the same footing as chemical fertilizers. This will make it possible to apply recovered fertilizers on top of the 170 kg/ha. What about the organic farming?

EC is preparing the RENURE legislation in order to establish criteria for recovered fertilizers.

The fact that these products have a lower concentration than the chemical fertilizers is a real disadvantage. It entails practical problems, for example application has to be repeated, meaning a higher frequency of application machines on the field with risk for soil damage. Also if more than 1 application is needed, this is time consuming.


ID295: Is the ammonium nitrate always a liquid?

Yes. Most farmers are equipped to be able to apply liquid fertilizers.

ID295: Field trial maize: how come that CAS versus ammonium nitrate yield similar fresh masses but that the Dry mass is significant higher with ammonium nitrate? Can it be explained by the fact that the ammonium nitrate is a liquid while CAS is a solid?

There is no clear answer for this. It was decided to harvest because the plants had dried out. There were no fully-grown corn cobs and about 90 % of the stems even didn’t have any cob at all, this was similar for all objects. So dry matter is lower than normal.

ID295: How to apply ammonium sulfate?

There will be less risk for volatilization (compared to NH4NO3) since NH4-concentrations are lower. So application by drag-hose is an option.

ID295: Why the concentration of N in NH4NO3 is 10 of 18%? Can it be produced in higher concentrations (solid)?

The N-concentration in the produced product depends on the system settings. It is difficult to produce higher concentrations. Also, production risk increases with higher concentrations.

ID295: At what stage did they apply the fertilizers for the maize field test?

At the moment of sowing.

ID270, ID272 and ID280: Do you need to get the compost yourself?

Most compost producers can bring it to you legally.

ID270, ID272 and ID280: Can you apply compost and digestate in organic farming?

Only green compost, digestate not yet but there are things going on (with restrictions on the feedstocks).

ID270, ID272 and ID280: When is it best to apply compost (for leaching risk)?

Compost is slowly acting so low risk for leaching. But there are restrictions in regulations.

ID270, ID272 and ID280: Compost application: does it matter if you apply 50 tons in one time or two times 25 tons over three years?

This does not make much difference.

ID292: How to decrease the cost of farm composting?

You do not need a liquid proof floor, you can hire or share a turner, you can compost together with other farms or companies, you can supply enough or excess brown material in order to limit the monitoring and turning (static composting).

ID295 and ID296: Is there a possibility to increase the concentration of the liquid ammonium nitrate?

Not at this moment since there are problems with crystallisation.

ID295 and ID296: What is the pH of ammonium nitrate?

pH is 6.

ID295 and ID296: Is the obtained ammonium nitrate always liquid?

Yes. This is positive since most farmers can apply this to their fields.

ID192: Why so exceptional high P2O5 content available in the Bio-Phosphate products?

On the Planet Earth naturally high concentrated Phosphorus can only be found in one unique mineral and that is the apatite, which has two natural forms:

  1. MINED MINERAL APATITE is a mineral phosphate rock that is non-renewable (formed over millions of years) critical raw material and naturally containing high levels of cadmium, uranium and other toxic chemicals. Today the mined phosphate rock is the only significant commercial source of phosphorus used to manufacture chemosynthetic fertiliser. The process to convert the ore into a phosphorus fertiliser product is done via chemical extraction with an acid. Phosphorus fertilisers produced from phosphate rock poses a risk to human health and environment.
  2. BONE BASED-APATITE which is an unexploited and renewable biomass raw material with high dicalcium phosphate content. The food grade cattle bones are pure and free from organic and inorganic contaminations and available in economically interesting industrial scale. The 3R zero emission pyrolysis technology treats the food grade cattle bone grist at as high as 850ºC material core temperatures in absence of oxygen. The end-product is the Bio-Phosphate (animal bone char) which is pure and environmental safe recovered fertiliser product.

As both materials are same apatite group substances the standard high P concentration is >30% - 36% P2O5 in both cases. All Phosphate products are critical raw materials as of COM/2020/474 final.

ID292: In which ratio do you enter green and brown materials?

40-50% green materials, 50-60% brown materials 

ID292: How often do you need to turn the compost?

This depends on the measurements of oxygen and temperature.

ID292: How many farms can cooperate for farm composting?

Legislation is not ready yet, but this will be 3 farms (Flanders).

ID192: Why do we want to avoid using protein content Bone Meal in livestock feed and fertilizers?

Despite animal rendering by-products (bone meal/bone grist, MBM, PAP) are sterile products at the point of production, same as for any protein content materials, there is a very high risk for cross and recontamination during the applications. As because animal rendering by-products are mammal protein based, the human and animal pathogens are prime risk potential. While rendered products leave the cooker negative of the bacteria, re-contamination can occur anywhere along the way to the utilisation point. Renderers take many precautions to prevent recontamination while the meal is in their possession but have no control over their product once it leaves a facility. Although, the usual treatment >133°C, 20 minutes, 3 bars thermal treatment, may be enough to sterilize the category 3 bone meal, after the material is leaving the factory the cross and recontamination is a risk. The EU bans the use of animal rendering by-products for livestock animals. Concerning utilisation of crude bone meal for direct fertilisation in-vivo open environment, there is a high risk of cross and recontamination of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, in the case of Phosphorus recovery from any bone products only the added value carbonization processing at material core temperature <850°C providing fully safe solution. Proper carbonisation of bones offering far better technical opportunity for product valorisation versus the highly risky use of the crude bone meal for any in vivo applications.

The Producer Responsibility Principle: Producers having full responsibility for animal by-product disease cross and recontamination cases (“manufacturers of products bear responsibility for the environmental impacts of their products throughout the products life-cycles, including upstream impacts inherent in the selection of materials for the products, impacts from manufacturers, production process itself, and downstream impacts form the use and disposal of the products.

ID192: Are the struvite or mineral phosphate products market competitors to the Bio-Phosphate products?

No. The struvite and mineral phosphate products are chemically processed and not biofertilisers. The sewage waste water extracted struvite may contain pharma/illicit drug residuals and pathogenic contaminations, while gene fragments of the Covid-19 virus also found in wastewater entering a sewage works as well. The chemosynthetically processed mineral phosphate containing cadmium and uranium contaminations. In contrary, Bio-Phosphate products are pure and natural, chemically not treated, 100% safe and containing natural biomaterials only.

ID192: Are there any other alternative applications of the Bio-Phosphate products?

Yes, this is a high efficient macroporosus adsorbent for water treatment and other industrial applications as well.

ID 192: What about the economy of the Bio-Phosphate products?

Bio-Phosphate is a biofertiliser product that is the most market competitive priced (total cost/value) in the biofertiliser sector under any climatic and soil conditions on the targeted markets EU, USA, Australia and Japan.

ID 192: Is the Bio-Phosphate product formulated?

Yes, the Bio-Phosphate product is the basic product itself with high phosphorus ad calcium content. All in order to widen the application areas the product is BIO-NPK-C formulated to any compound biofertiliser configuration, including solid state fermented and formulated with beneficial soil microorganism strains. The commercial product name after such formulation is PROTECTOR that is an EU-MS Authority permitted commercial product.

ID192: What is the P2O5 content of the Bio-Phosphate product?

Up to 36% P2O5 content.

ID 192: What are the different sizes of the Bio-Phosphate product?

The Bio-Phosphate (ABC Animal Bone Char) is a granulated product in different sizes, such 0-1 mm (<18 mesh), 1-2 mm (<10 mesh) and 2-4.7 mm (<4 mesh).

ID192: Does the Bio-Phosphate containing any chemicals or artificial ingredients?

No, the Bio-Phosphate is free from all and any toxic contaminants and does not containing any chemicals or artificial ingredients. Bio-Phosphate is a recovered and renewable bio-based fertiliser product.

ID322, ID323, ID295, ID296: Are ammoniumnitrate after stripping/scrubbing and VeDoWS urine seen as animal manure ormineral fertilizer?

The application dose depends on the EU regulation.For this field trial, these products all folow  the maximum of 170 kg N/ha (as the N out of animal limit).

ID295, ID296, ID322, ID323: Is there only 1 system in West-Flanders for ammoniumnitrate after stripping/scrubbing and VeDoWS urine?

No there are multiple systems active, but for this field trial, only these 2 products of these systems were tested. Products of simular systems have a simular behaviour when tested in field trials, so only these 2 are taken up in the field trial, also as an example of simular products with same characteristics.

ID192 and ID193: Which legal and mandatory permits do we need for Bio-Phosphate products and applications?
  1. Technology: mandatory Authority permit for establishment/building construction of industrial facility and operate it under valid EU regulations applied by the MS. Usually ten Authorities involved.
  2. Products: mandatory MS Authority permit to lawfully market, label and apply  products in agricultural soil under valid EU regulations applied by the MS and other MS as of EU 2019/515. Beyond July 16, 2022 additional EU lawfully marketing opportunity is provided by EU 2019/1009.
  3. Products: mandatory EU REACH certificate above 1 t/y capacity for import, manufacturing, placing on the market and applications.
  4. Products: extended producer responsibility and liability schedule.
ID192: Which type of materials can be considered as P-rich ?

The economically interesting minimum Phosphorus content of P-rich materials should be above approx. 20% P2O5.  Bio-Phosphate has high nutrient concentration up to 36% P2O5 and used as full value bio fertilizers at dose 200 kg/ha to 1500 kg/ha.

ID192: What is the difference between the nutrient content of poultry manure biochar and Bio-Phosphate?

Poultry manure biochar itself is rather low nutrient density material with low economical interest for the users, as the extra cost for processing is not reflected in the nutrient density value. The input material poultry manure itself having somewhat increased (1-3% P2O5 content) nutrient content versus other types of manure with low content, therefore it is of higher commercial value. Poultry manure biochar is fine grain sized and that powder like material is challenging to further formulate and apply in practice under full industrial conditions. Application dose rates are high, such as >10 t/ha. However, it is to be remarked, that biochar processing also means total sterilization of this material that is a plus environmental safety value for poultry manure biochar case.

Bio-Phosphate itself is an exceptional high P/Ca nutrient dense material such as 35% P2O5 content, with proper granulation size and macro porosity with BIO-NPK-C formulation possibility in any configuration. This is highly interesting for the users, as the cost for Bio-Phosphate processing is reflected in the nutrient density value and performance. Application dose rates are low, such as 0.3 t/ha average. The overall BioPhosphate cost is far lower vs. poultry manure biochar or plant based biochar, when all costs and values considered under market competitive industrial production conditions.

ID 192: How often is it necessary to apply?

Usually in every second year, but if the soil is in nutrient deficit, than yearly application recommended.

ID 192: Do farmers need any special machines for application of Bio-Phosphate?

No you do not need any special machine as machinery is same as inorganic fertilisers.

ID 192: what is the recommended application dose for Bio-Phosphate?

Bio-Phosphate is high nutrient dense innovative biofertilizer and the usual application dose is from 200 kg/ha to 1500 kg/ha, in practice 300 kg/ha, depending on local conditions.

ID193: Does it require any EU/Member State Authority permit to install/operate a pyrolysis plant?

YES, in Europe there is mandatory requirement to get permit from the MS Authorities to install/operate a pyrolysis plant for commercial production of all and any types of biochar according to EU regulations and usually ten advising Authorities involved in this mandatory permit process. The REACH regulation is also defining mandatory certificate for import, placing on the market and manufacturing of commercial biochar above 1 t/y capacity.

ID 192 and ID193: What are the solid legal bases of the 3R zero emission pyrolysis technology and Bio-Phosphate product?
  • Fully permitted by EU MS Authorities under strict EU legislations with link to Mutual Recognition EU 2019/515, Fertilising Products Regulation EU 2019/1009 and List of Critical Raw Materials (COM/2020/474 final).
  • Industrial scale pyrolysis plant installation and operation permit number: FES/01/0851-33/2015 (Issuing Authority Industrial Safety Inspection and ten other advising Authorities)
  • ABC (Animal Bone Char) BioPhosphate product horticultural biofertiliser application permit number: 6300/2407-2/2020.
ID192: How sustainable the Bio-Phosphate product?
  • The Bio-Phosphate is fully environmental and climate sustainable with zero emission processing and carbon negative applications.
  • The Bio-Phosphate is produced from a sustainable and renewable by-product streams and unexploited biomass
  • 100% safe to use under any climatic and soil conditions.
  • Targeting positive social and environmental impacts, improved food quality & safety for less cost.
  • High efficient energy conversion process. Energy self-sufficient and auto-thermal process with surplus energy production
  • Low-cost/low-energy supply chain.
ID 192: What are the animal by products (ABPs)?

Animal by-products (ABPs) are food grade materials of animal origin that people do not consume. ABPs include among others:

  • Animal feed - e.g. based on fishmeal and processed animal protein.
  • Organic fertilisers and soil improvers - e.g. manure, guano.
  • Technical products - e.g. pet food, hides and skins for leather, nones, wool, blood for producing diagnostic tools

The use and disposal routes permitted are governed by the Regulation (EC) 1069/2009.

ID192 and ID193: Is “slaughterhouse waste” a correct terminology for input material for production of P-rich Bio-Phosphate?

No, this is not. The classified waste and by-product materials are two different streams and technically/legally two different classes.

  • Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials, which is discarded incinerated after primary use.
  • By-products are valuable resource secondary products derived from the production and manufacturing process.

The outputs of the slaughterhouses are farmed animal products for human consumption and crude animal by-products that are further processed in other industries, such as fat processing and rendering industries to make new and safely derived products. All slaughterhouse crude animal by products (ABPs) must be processed, that is resulting derived products in the rendering industry. Slaughterhouses do not processing animal by-products but deliver such materials to other and specialized industries, specialized for fat processing and rendering operations only at the usual processing condition 133°C on 3 bars under 20 minutes conditions.

The direct (untreated) agricultural use of the crude protein content animal rendering products provides high environmental risk by possible trans and recontamination by human and animal pathogens. Despite animal rendering by-products (protein based bone meal and MBM) are sterile products at the point of production, there is a very high risk for cross and recontamination during applications. While rendered products leave the cooker negative of the bacteria, recontamination can occur anywhere along the way. Most animal by-products are not suitable for direct production of high quality recovered Phosphorus fertiliser, but food grade animal bones, horns and hoofs only.

ID 192 and ID 193: Could meat and bone meal (MBM) be a relevant input for Bio-Phosphate as a mixed stream?

NO, absolutely not. MBM mix is a very different product and not suitable with its very high meat content and low bone content.

Production of Bio-Phosphate from MBM: absolutely not, there is no any technical reason and economical viability, possibility and rationality to convert high protein low P content MBM to Bio-Phosphate. MBM can be rationally utilized for bioenergy via pyroylsis processing.

MBM - meat and bone meal mix is made by “rendering” of categories 1 and 2 animal by-product (ABP) materials by processing at 133°C at 3 bars pressure for at least 20 minutes, to ensure partial sanitization (this is considered to be sufficient to eliminate bacteria and viruses but not prions, which prion elimination require processing temperature treatment over 500°C material core) . The rendered product typically contains about 48–52% high protein content, 33–35% ash, 8–12% fat, and 7-10% moisture. The MBM rendering process produces energy or the products are taken in energy-production installations authorized to take these categories of animal by products for energy conversion. Meat and Bone Meal Ash is produced by high temperature incineration/calcination treatment of MBM in a heat process conform to the Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU Incineration Directive) Article 6 = conditions of incineration at minimum 850°C for at least 2 seconds, TOC (total organic carbon) in ash powder <3%. These conditions ensure complete elimination of all pathogens.

ID 192 and ID193: What is the input material for producing P-rich Bio-Phosphate product?

The input material for producing P-rich Bio-Phosphate product is food grade animal bone grist, usually cattle bones, which is made from selected Category 3 food grade animal bones only. Bio-Phosphate processing is a mono feed industrial operation. The material is collected by the bone processing rendering industries and processed separately, with processing under 133°C. Processed bone contains typically about 30–38% protein content, 50–62% mineral, 5–8% fat, and 7-10% moisture. Bone Meal/Bone Grist is also used for production and extraction of gelatine for the human food industry; China bone (burned bone ash powder for porcelain industry); pet food and Bio-Phosphate production by 3R Zero Emission Pyrolysis technology. Bio-Phosphate is granular and 1-5 mm sized bone char product with up to 36% P2O5 high nutrient density and can be used as full value bio fertiliser (primarily for organic / low input horticulture and urban agriculture) and/or as an specific water treatment adsorbent. Bio-Phosphate is applicable at soil and soilless media biocultivations as well.

ID 272: Can we replace all our synthetic fertilisers with compost?

You can replace a large part of it but have to consider an nutrient analysis of the compost and compare it to the need of your crop. Then you have to add the nutrients that are still required. The advantage is here that you can use singular nutrients for this purpose and you will need considerably less.

ID 401: Can the ashes distribute well in the potting soil, since they are so powdery?

We assume they do but will do a soil analysis at the end of the trial to assess this. In addition, the ashes can be pelletized or granulated for use.

ID 322 and 323: When did you analyse the products?

We took a sample before application, and one during application: the composition was very comparable.

ID 295 and 296:When did you analyse the products?

We took a sample before application, and one during application: the composition was very comparable.

ID 295 and 296: How much natrium is present in digestate?

We didn’t analyse this parameter but we expect a low concentration, comparable with chloride.

ID 322 and 323: How much natrium is present in pig urine?

We didn’t analyse this parameter but we expect a low concentration, comparable with chloride.

ID295 and 296: How much sulphate is present in ammoniumsulphate/scrubber water?

Approximately the same as nitrogen:  4 à 5% (40 à 50 kg/ton)