ID322: What is the N/K ratio in the pig urine?

N = 3 kg/ton ; K = 4 kg/ton ; P < 0.2 kg/ton

ID323: How is the energy consumption of a VeDoWS adapted stable construction?

It works with a motor of 0.25 kW, so the cost is only < 1 EUR/pig place/ year. The energy consumption of air scrubbers is a lot more.

ID323: What is the influence of the system on fire safety compared to air scrubbers?

When there is manure separation at the source, the amount of damage in case of fire will normally be less because there is no central exhaust duct. In the case of a central exhaust duct – which is necessary for air scrubbers – the fire can spread more easily.

ID323: There is talk of a pick-up price for the thick fraction of max 17 euros. In the Netherlands and France, there has recently been talked of a yield. Do you have an idea where the difference might come from?

The price is varying between 0 and 12 EUR + 5 EUR transport costs. So the worst case scenario is 17 EUR; the best case scenario is 5 EUR. The difference with other countries like The Netherlands and France is because the business model of biogas installations is different.

ID192: Why choose only animal bone as input material for BioPhosphate recovery?

Only animal bones containing large amount of phosphorus and that is because both bones and mined mineral phosphates are apatite minerals. On this Planet Earth the apatite mineral is the only original source of phosphorus.

ID192 and ID1571: Who issues permits for commercial use of biochar and Bio-Phosphate product?

Before July 15, 2022, MS national Authorities only, after July 16, 2022 national Authority permit or EU EC fertilizer permit can be selected.

ID192: What are the risks arising from using BioPhosphate?

For a high quality BioPhosphate product with proper application no any risks recognized.

ID1571: What are the main risks arising from using plant based biochar?

a) Contaminants: if the feedstock contains potentially toxic elements (in particular heavy metals) they will be retained during thermochemical conversion, hence will remain in the ash  contained  in  the  biochar.  During  conversion,  organic  compounds  called  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be generated. Some PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, are carcinogenic and their content in food substances is strictly regulated. Care must be taken in the feedstock selection and in the  operation  of  the  thermochemical  conversion  to  ensure  that  the  risks  to  the environment and human health are properly assessed and managed.

b) Damage to soils:  Shifting  large  amounts  of  biochar  onto  fields  could  cause  soil compaction,  but  the  land-owner  or  tenant  will  limit  this  risk. 

c)  A possible  ‘priming  effect’:  An  accelerated  decomposition  of  soil  organic  matter from the introduction of biochar has been observed, that is a significant environmental and climate risk.

d)  Feedstock  availability  and-use  impacts:  It  has  been  claimed  by  some environmental  organisations  that  biochar  would  encourage  plantations  with  deleterious environmental and social impacts.


ID1571: What are the potential benefits of biochar in soil?

Biochar addition to soils has been shown to improve crop yields. In more fertile soils, or in soils that receive high levels of external inputs, and are not liable to water-stress, the corresponding impacts of biochar on agronomic performance is modest.

ID192: What is the application dose for BioPhosphate?

200 kg/ha to 1500/ha.

ID1571: What is the application dose for plant based biochar?

5 t/ha to 20 t/ha.

ID1571: Does plant based biochar containing sufficient nutrients?

No, plant based biochar is carbon based and does not containing economically interesting nutrient content. This is for soil improver.

ID1665: What are the benefits of using pellet organic fertiliser based on plant biomass digestate?

The key product benefits: produced from renewable agricultural resources, provides organic matter to soil, no water pollution risk due to slow release of nutrients, fully organic certified, safe to use – very low contaminant loads.

ID1664: What are the benefits of applying Compost from Master

The key product benefits: produced  fully from renewable materials - selectively collected green waste;  supplies soil with organic matter and nutrients; improves soil water retention and soil structure; low cost, applicable for a wide range of crops and uses; safe to use – slow release, low contaminants and pathogen free.

ID207-208-250-258: How do you handle the powder struvite?

You can handle the struvite using a normal fertilizer spreader paying attention not tu apply the fertilizer windy days. There are also kind of struvite combined with organic fertilizer in order to be a more suitable fertilizer in terms of nutients and in order to be easier to apply.

ID207-208-250-258: Could the struvite’s phosphorous be absorbed by crops even if it is not soluble in water?

Although the water-soluble portion of the nutrients is low, the fertilizing effect of struvite has been determined in tests to be as good as mineral P-fertilizers. Struvite meets nutritional demands of crops in a better way and prevents the burning of plant roots, even when applied in excess quantities. Struvite guarantees a slow but steady nutrient supply and reduces nutrients runoff.

ID207-208-250-258: Is the precipitated struvite water soluble even if it blocks the pipes and machinery used for water treatment?

Struvite has low water solubility, which gives it slow-release fertiliser properties and prevents leaching and eutrophication.

ID192: When will the BioPhosphate and the Struvite products be available on the market?

Concerning the BioPhosphate the TRL9 full industrial production installation is under organization and will be set up in 2021 through 2022. The 3R industrial technology and product commercial applications are already MS Authority permitted, and after inclusion as EU 2019/1009 CMC14 pyroylsis material in 2021 will EU legalised from July 16, 2022 as well. The BioPhosphate product is already organic listed by Organic Farming Certification associations as well. REACH certification is under progress. By the end of next year the BioPhosphate products are planned to be launched on the market, for which Italy and Germany are primarily targeted.

The Stuvite will be launched on the market when the MS legislation will stop to consider it as a waste.

ID192: Are the any other similar solutions known internationally like 3R to process animal bone to make ABC Animal Bone Char - BioPhosphate?

No. As far as we know the innovative 3R deep-tech, advanced innovative solution and key enabling technology to make ABC Animal Bone Char - BioPhosphate is the only one on the international market, which is offering comprehensive solution under market competitive conditions. The bone char industrial products are known since 1870, for which the large multinational company Tate & Lyle has been the main producer. However, the environmental Authorities stopped that outdated technology and production in 2001. In 2002 the 3R-BioPhosphate Ltd. (based on the revolutionary inventions of Edward Someus) received an RTD project development mandate from the EU Commission, with very clear goal to develop a new generation and modern bone char processing technology to recover phosphorus products and green energy. Past decade several progressive deep-tech RTD actions made with progressive results towards higher and higher TRL Technology Readiness Levels. The successful science, technology and industrial results developed specialization on new generation and advanced bone char processing and applications, which meet all new industrial and environmental norms and standards in the EU, UK, USA, Australia and Japan.


ID192: Why 850 degree Celsius high material core temperature used at ID192 BioPhosphate production? Would it not be sufficient lower treatment temperature, like at plant based biochar 450 Celsius?

Manufacturing of high quality ABC Animal Bone Char - BioPhosphate require much higher technology performance level than to make plant based biochar, as the animal bone materials containing complex protein based organics, while plant materials short chain organics only. The ABC material protein character of the bone is such that it requires 850 Celsius material core processing temperature to remove all volatiles and tars from the material inside, while at plant based biochar the 450 Celsius material core processing temperature is sufficient. During all types of thermal processing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH's are formed which must be full removed from the material. Although the EU defined PAH16 limit 6 mg/kg in general, but some Member States defined PAH19 limit 1 mg/kg already since 2005, especially when such products are applied in environmentally sensitive areas with connection to subsurface water base. All in order to make a fully safe BioPhosphate product under any conditions, the 3R technology is implementing PAH19 limit <1 mg/kg in all it’s product cases, that quality under industrial production conditions can only be reached with 850Celsius material core temperature processing only.

ID397: How is the P release from the product to be assessed?

The product is not soluble in water but is good in citric acid. The P release takes place sustainably, the product is therefore not endangered by leaching but good plant available.

ID401: How is the P availability for plants to be assessed for this ash-based product?

The good P effect – comparable to mineral fertilizers - has been proven in container and field tests.

ID293: Are struvites allowed as P fertilizers during derogation in the Netherlands?

Yes, struvites are permitted as P fertilizers within the scope of derogations. In the Netherlands they are also sold with a name like ‘derogation fysiostart’.

ID593: Can it volatilise?

If you apply it early in the year it does not and with a third of water added all NH3 is bound.

ID593: What else does it contain?

It contains ca 7,5 kg K2O per tonne. This gives 75 kg K2O per ha which is necessary for good crop growth as a supplement to slurry.

ID593: How, how much and when should I apply this product?

At the time of sowing the crop, approximately at the same time as the basic fertilizer. The quantity is between 5 and 10 tonnes per ha.

ID266: Are there any other useful substances in the product?

Due to the reduction of sulphur deposition from the air, the sulphate is a welcome addition to a total fertilisation.

The nitrate can be quickly absorbed by the plant, and so the youth growth can be fully exploited.

ID266: What is the risk of losses to the environment?

The risk is small because ammonium does not leach out and is gradually converted into absorbable nitrate. This is dependent on temperature and thus follows crop growth nicely.

There is a limited chance of volatilisation but if you apply it early in the spring and dilute it with 25% water if necessary, this is prevented.


ID266: How quickly is the nitrogen available to the crop?

About 85% of the N is immediately available and the rest spread throughout the season.

ID1665: Which are the advantages of the applying digestate biofertilizers?

Digestate biofertilizers introduce organic matter, activate microbial activity in soil and improve soil structure. For example, PLANTEO pellet is fully produced from plant biomass and using renewable energy for the production process. The fertilizer acts comprehensively and effectively due to macro and microelements and natural microbiome that stimulates plant growth. The fertilizer contains over 80% of organic substances of plant origin, improving soil quality and structure. Nutrients are released slowly therefore it is safe for the environment. Planteo does not contain hormones, antibiotics and it is produced without addition of chemicals

Are products for the consumer sector treated differently in the EU regulation than in the professional sector?

In principle, placing on the market is subject to the same rules with regard to requirements and labelling for fertilizers, soil additives or growing media.

Will the national legislation remain in place even after the new EU legislation comes into force?

According to the current status, it is planned to continue the national regulations for placing fertilizers on the market in parallel.

ID295: Can mineral concentrates completely replace the use of mineral nitrogen fertilizers?

Mineral concentrates are a very good addition to mineral fertilizers. A combination has proven itself to cover the needs of the cultures encompassing. A large part of the mineral fertilizers can thus be replaced.

Isn't the ratio of nitrogen to sulphur in the stripped ASL unfavourable for fertilization?

When stripping with sulfuric acid, the ratio of N: S of approx. 1:3 is not optimal; this can be improved by using nitric acid as an alternative (citric acid is also tested as an alternative) (see ID 295).

ID466: Despite a high supply of P in the soil, plants are temporarily undersupplied. How can the P-effect of nutrients in the soil be improved? Does NUTRIMAN also offer assistance or solutions here.

Alternative P fertilizers such as struvite (see ID 208, ID 250, ID 251 or ID 293) are not soluble in water they are slowly released in the soil. This means that they are not so strongly set in the soil or washed out. Organic P compounds could also be of interest because, unlike mineral compounds, they first have to be mineralized.

ID447: What is the point of such a preparation? Ultimately, the separated substances are still not sufficiently usable as fertilizers. In addition, less common residues (e.g. the process water) are created.

The separation can help make the products more transportable. Ultimately, it is also a question of cost whether the substances in their original form or processed will find better access to the market.

ID447: The process water contains even higher concentrations of nutrients (especially potassium). How do you deal with it?

The process water contains large amounts of potassium. The process water is not treated any further in the basic system. A separation could take place by a subsequent precipitation (potassium-magnesium-phosphate precipitation). Alternatively, the process water can be recycled in the biogas plant or used as a nutrient carrier/irrigation water on the fields.

ID270: Which is the nutrient content of the digestate from animal manure and organic waste digestate NPirriK-project process

The nutrient contents for the NPirriK-pellet (90% dm) of Arbio are on average 5,9% N (dm), 3% P2O5(dm), 2,5% K2O (dm), 3% CaO (dm) and 1% MgO (dm).

ID264: What are the benefits for farmers of digestate from manure and energy maize by "Agrogas" process?

Dried digestate improves soil biodiversity by increasing carbon levels. Furthermore dried digestate by its high dry matter-content also guarantees an optimized storage, shelf life and transport.

ID264: Which is the nutrient content of the digestate from manure and energy maize by "Agrogas" process?

The nutrient contents for the liquid digestate fraction of Agrogas are within a fork of 5,7-9,9 N% (dm), 2-3% P2O5(dm), and 15-22% K2O (dm). The nutrient contents for the dried digestate fraction of Agrogas are within a fork of 3-5 N% (dm), 4,5-7,5% P2O5(dm), 1,6-3,1% K2O (dm)

ID1665: What are the input material for PLANTEO pellet?

Input materials are plant biomass, fruit pomace, cereal silage.

ID1665: Which is the nutrient content of the PLANTEO pellet?

Pellet organic fertilizer based on plant biomass digestate has the following content of basic nutrients: 1.5% N -0.2% P -0.6% K.OM content 88%.

ID1664: What are the benefits for farmers of Kompo soil improvers products?

The Kompo soil improvers supplies soil with organic matter and nutrients. Nutrients are slowly released. The product improves soil water retention and soil structure. It could be applicable for a wide range of crops. The product is available one the market.

ID1664: What are the input material for Kompo soil improvers?

Input materials are selectively collected biodegradable green materials–grass and leaves.

ID1664: Which is the nutrient content of the Kompo soil improvers

Kompo soil improvers has the following maximum content of basic nutrients: 1.5% N -0.6% P –1.5% K.OM content 31%.

ID1664: Which are the advantages of the PLANTEO?

PLANTEO pellet is fully produced from plant biomass and using renewable energy for the production process. The fertilizer acts comprehensively and effectively due to macro and microelements and natural microbiome that stimulates plant growth. The fertilizer contains over 80% of organic substances of plant origin, improving soil quality and structure. Nutrients are released slowly therefore it is safe for the environment. Planteo does not contain hormones, antibiotics and it is produced without addition of chemicals.

ID192: What are the benefits for farmers of of BioPhosphate products?

The Bio-Phosphate having macroporosus structure, increases the soil water retention capacity and allows the development of microorganisms, retain nutrients and releasing them gradually over time.

Efficiency tests in different climatic and soil conditions showed that the BioPhosphate product can improve yields by >10% compared with any fertiliser on the market.

ID250: Is it currently possible to market struvite in Spain?

Nowadays, struvite in Spain is classified as waste, so it cannot be marketed as a biofertiliser. Currently there are countries where due to national legislation it is already possible to use struvite as a biofertiliser (e.g. Netherlands, Belgium, UK, etc.). It is expected that thanks to the entry into force of the new European revision of the fertiliser law, it will be possible to commercialise struvite in Spain in the near future.

ID256: In the technological development of the P/T, has the life cycle analysis of the process been considered?

The crystallisation reactor operating at Fundación Cartif was designed and constructed following Ecodesign criteria and methodology. On the other hand, Fundación Cartif is currently working on several projects in which it is quantifying the Life Cycle Assessment of the process using standardised methodology.

ID192 and ID1571: What is the cost to make an REACH investigation for biochar to submit to the EU ECHA for certification?

Certify REACH for biochar for all categories (1-10 t/y, 10-100 t/y, 100-1000 t/y and above 1000 t/y) is a costly action with estimated cost €500,000 to €1 million and may take 1-2 years even more.